Call for proposals: Ending Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Ethiopia

Important note: the deadline for submission of proposals has passed. Proposals are no longer accepted.


1. Introduction

About Terre des Hommes Netherlands 

Terre des Hommes Netherlands (TdH-NL) is a development organisation dedicated to children; it is named after a book by the famous French writer and World War II pilot Antoine de Saint-Exupéry – author of "The Little Prince". Even before this book was published, he wrote "Terre des Hommes" (Earth for Mankind) in which he called upon 'the people of the earth' to take their responsibilities seriously and to show solidarity. He said: "There is no third world. There is one world for which we are all responsible." 

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) is the cornerstone of all our programmes. This Convention represents the recognition by the international community that not only do children deserve to be protected, but that they have a right to be so. These rights have been enshrined in this almost universally accepted treaty and have subsequently been incorporated in national legislation in an overwhelming majority of the world's nations. 

The main theme of TdH-NL's work centers on the issue of child exploitation, the most serious violations of the rights of the child. TdH-NL's definition of child exploitation covers: (a) the Worst Forms of Child Labour; (b) Child Trafficking; (c) Sexual Exploitation of Children; (d) Increasing numbers of children fall victim of human trafficking, sexual exploitation or hazardous forms of child labour as defined by the ILO's 1999 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (ILO Convention 182). TdH-NL strives to prevent child exploitation, remove children from exploitative situations and ensure that they can develop in a secure, healthy and supportive environment. 

TdH-NL's approach

TdH-NL's programmes are based on the Theory of Change (ToC), aiming to create a world free of child exploitation (please refer to Annex 1 - TdH NL Theory of Change). Because TdH-NL wants to stop child exploitation in a structural manner, the organisation does not only help victims but also tackles the problem at its roots. The main strategies in this ToC are the 5 P's: Prevention, Provision, Promotion, Prosecution and Partnership & Participation. 


To prevent child exploitation, TdH-NL invests in education, but also in raising awareness among children and adults. And because poverty is the main reason for child exploitation, TdH-NL also offers parents the opportunity to increase their incomes via savings and credit groups.


Children who are victim of exploitation, need protection. TdH-NL provides shelter, health care, counselling and education and help them build a new future. The organisation also offers help to family members and involves the community in protecting children. 


It is important that victims can stand up for themselves and perpetrators are not allowed to escape justice. TdH-NL thus helps children to report cases to the police. They can also count on legal assistance and help during the criminal prosecution. The organisation also trains local police and justice.


TdH-NL stands up for children's rights. The organisation campaigns to raise awareness of children's rights and conducts research to identify and call attention to trends and developments in child exploitation. Furthermore, TdH-NL follows and influences decision-making of local and national governments, businesses and international organisations (like the UN) and advocates for the implementation of these decisions. To prevent children from being exploited and to ensure victims of exploitation receive adequate help.


TdH-NL strengthens civil society in the promotion of children's rights as a precondition to ensure children are protected. The organisation invests in the organisational and institutional development of southern civil society organisations.

TdH-NL always works through local project partners. These partners are familiar with the situation on the ground and know the best ways of reaching out and helping the children concerned.

Terre des Hommes Netherlands in Ethiopia

Terre des Hommes Netherlands supports Ethiopian NGOs and networks in the execution of projects in Amhara Region. This is underpinned by work at national level. The two programmatic areas identified as priorities include:

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC): TdH-NL promotes national and local level strategies to promote actions against CSEC at the policy and community level. Particular focus is directed on CSEC interventions towards urban areas in Amhara Region where commercial sexual exploitation of children happens extensively.

Child Trafficking: TdH-NL will work towards the elimination of trafficking and unsafe migration of children mainly along the Addis-Bahir Dar-Gondar route that leads to the border 

2. Call for Proposals: Ending Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

Tackling commercial sexual exploitation of children is an important theme in TdH-NL's current strategic plan (2011­-2015). As part of its new strategic plan (2016­-2020), TdH-NL plans to increase its support to comprehensive projects addressing commercial sexual exploitation of children in Eastern Africa. Initial focus will be on three year projects (2016-2018). 

Invitation for applications & eligibility criteria

TdH-NL is inviting non-governmental organisations (NGOs or CSOs) with the required framework to submit a full proposal. 

This call is open to organisations to apply independently as well as in a consortium / in partnership (i.e. more than one applicant). If an application is made as a consortium, the applicant should as the consortium lead clearly state how the project will be managed and should indicate a clear role for each partner. The appointment of a consortium coordinator position is recommended, to be included in the management costs. 

Funding is only granted to national organisations (non INGOs) fully registered in the country of implementation. Any sub granting partners must also be fully registered. 

Outline of the requirements applicants need to meet in order to be considered for TdH-NL’s funding:

  • Applicant as well as (if applicable) co-applicants need to be fully registered in the country 
  • Applicant as well as (if applicable) co-applicants need to demonstrate a successful track record in addressing commercial sexual exploitation of children 
  • The proposal needs to show a coherent programmatic approach 
  • The proposed project needs to be based on the Theory of Change with related outcomes

Proposals that do not meet any of the criteria in this call and that do not use the formats provided will automatically be disqualified.


Commercial sexual exploitation of children is prevalent in most urban areas of Ethiopia, and young girls, some as young as age 11, are recruited to work as commercial sex workers at brothels, hotels, bars, rural truck stops, and in resort towns. This is common in Addis Ababa, where reportedly "The highest concentration of brothels in Africa is located in Mercato", which is the city centre with the largest market area and major bus terminal in the country. Some children engage in commercial sex in nightclubs, bars and brothels, while others simply stand on street corners waiting for men to pick them up.

The prevalence of commercial sexual exploitation of children is sometimes an outcome of human trafficking. Rural Ethiopian children are often trafficked for domestic servitude to urban areas. Domestic child trafficking is predisposing girls into commercial sex work. Data obtained from Child Protection Unit reveals that from 2004-2007, 2243 children (66.7% females) were trafficked from rural areas and small towns to Addis Ababa. A UNICEF research also indicates that over 25% of nearly 50,000 women and children involved in commercial sex work in Ethiopia are victims of trafficking.

It has also something to do with rural-urban migration. Numerous children migrate from rural areas in order to escape poverty, limited educational and job opportunities, drought, violence at home, child marriage, abusive relationships and exploitative labour, only to become victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the urban centres. The common trend is that they become housemaids upon their arrival in urban centres to be ultimately tricked into commercial sex work. Parents and families pressure their young children, especially girls, to migrate and send remittances back home to support their families.

Commercial sexual exploitation of children is also common in major regional cities other than Addis Ababa including in Adma, Shashemene, Awasa, Dire Dawa, Dessie, Gondar and Bahir Dar. Moreover, small towns known to host and entertain large numbers of people such as truck drivers, plantation workers, cash crop growing farmers, the army and mining and construction workers are said to be common sites for CSEC. In fact, from the past three years of experience in Amhara Region, TdH-NL has noted the magnitude of the problem in Gondar and Bahir Dar cities. Although exact data is hard to come by, a report from Bahir Dar City Police Commission in 2012 showed the presence of more than 310 child commercial sex workers in Bahir Dar alone. A survey by TdH-NL in 2013 has also noted that small towns in Amhara Region located along the border with Sudan such as Gendewuha, Metema, Humera and Abrhajira have become internal trafficking destinations for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. 

Expected Outcomes

This Call for Proposals aims to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

It specifically aims to address the following outcomes:

1. Children at risk of commercial sexual exploitation and children who are victims of commercial sexual exploitation claim their rights

2. Families and communities protect children from commercial sexual exploitation

3. Government protects children from commercial sexual exploitation by making and adequately implementing laws and policies 

4. Law enforcement agencies convict perpetrators of commercial sexual exploitation of children

5. Civil society organisations protect the rights and best interest of children (specifically children vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation)

6. Private sector contributes to the wellbeing of children vulnerable to or victims of commercial sexual exploitation

Intervention strategies - types of activities

Strategies to be considered by applicants should be in line with the 5 P's strategy of TdH-NL. A minimum of 2 of the 5 P's should be included in the proposed project. 
Examples of activities (important note: this list is for guidance purposes only and is not exhaustive)

1. Children vulnerable to sexual exploitation participate in awareness raising sessions

2. Sexually exploited children are withdrawn, rehabilitated and reintegrated with their families and communities

3. Sexually exploited children receive education and training services and participate in income generating activities

4. Community-based child protection structures are supported and actively take part in protecting children from sexual exploitation

5. Members of judiciary and police staff are trained on child protection and child-friendly interview techniques

Applicants are invited to indicate innovative approaches that feed into the expected outcomes (i.e. beyond the examples listed above).

Geographical focus

The following areas in Ethiopia are eligible for funding: urban areas in Amhara Region. 

Duration and budget

The initial planned duration of a project should be 33 months, starting on 1 April 2016. 

Contracts will be entered into on yearly basis; the first one to cover 9 months (1 April - 31 December 2016). 

Depending on the project design, the budget ranges from EUR 200,000 to EUR 250,000 for the full duration of 33 months. The budget should be presented as per the required format (please refer to Annex 4 - TdH NL EA Project Budget Format), entailing the budget for the first 9 months as well as for the subsequent 2 years. The budget for the first 9 months should not exceed EUR 62,500 for 2016.

The proposed project budget should be at least 85% programme cost and not exceed 15% management cost (inclusive of a maximum of EUR 2,600 for ICT*).

* TdH-NL's reporting and accounting system is Internet based; with a view to this, all project partners are required to have or acquire sufficient equipment and Internet access.


  • Publication of the Call for Proposals: Wednesday 21 October 2015. 
  • A Q & A session about this specific Call for Proposals will be organised by TdH-NL for which all interested parties are invited.
    The Q&A session will take place in Addis Ababa, in the meeting hall of ANPPCAN - Ethiopia's head office, Kazanchis, near former Enderassie Hotel on Tuesday 27th of October 2015 from 10.00 to 11.30 a.m.
    (note that prospective applicants should cover their own travel cost to this location)
  • Deadline of submission: Monday 16 November 2015 (12.00 EAT)
    Send your proposal to with subject heading: Ending CSEC Project Proposal [+ name of (lead) applicant]. Include all required attachments / annexes.

  • Review and shortlisting will be done by TdH-NL on or before 15 December 2015. 

  • Shortlisted proposals will be subject to a more detailed review including clarifying questions, validation of information and capacity assessment of project applicants.
    Deadline for shortlisted applicants to answer questions raised: 15 January 2016.

  • Final selection will be done by TdH-NL on or before 7 February 2016, after which the selected projects will be submitted to TdH-NL's Head Office for final review and approval.

  • Partner contracts for the first 9 months of the project will be signed latest by 1 March 2016.

  • Projects will start on 1 April 2016. If so required, a mobilisation period of 2 months can be built into the project design, resulting in an effective project (activities) start date of 1 June 2016.

List of Annexes

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