Call for Proposals: Ending Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Turkana Kenya

Important note: the deadline for submission of proposals has passed. Proposals are no longer accepted.

1. Introduction

About Terre des Hommes Netherlands

Terre des Hommes Netherlands (TdH-NL) is a development organisation dedicated to children; it is named after a book by the famous French writer and World War II pilot Antoine de Saint-Exupéry – author of "The Little Prince". Even before this book was published, he wrote "Terre des Hommes" (Earth for Mankind) in which he called upon 'the people of the earth' to take their responsibilities seriously and to show solidarity. He said: "There is no third world. There is one world for which we are all responsible."

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) is the cornerstone of all our programmes. This Convention represents the recognition by the international community that not only do children deserve to be protected, but that they have a right to be so. These rights have been enshrined in this almost universally accepted treaty and have subsequently been incorporated in national legislation in an overwhelming majority of the world's nations. 

The main theme of TdH-NL's work centers on the issue of child exploitation, the most serious violations of the rights of the child. TdH-NL's definition of child exploitation covers: (a) the Worst Forms of Child Labour; (b) Child Trafficking; (c) Sexual Exploitation of Children; (d) Child Abuse. Increasing numbers of children fall victim of human trafficking, sexual exploitation or hazardous forms of child labour as defined by the ILO's 1999 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (ILO Convention 182). TdH-NL strives to prevent child exploitation, remove children from exploitative situations and ensure that they can develop in a secure, healthy and supportive environment. 

TdH-NL’s approach

TdH-NL's programmes are based on the Theory of Change (ToC), aiming to create a world free of child exploitation (please refer to Annex 1 - TdH NL Theory of Change). Because TdH-NL wants to stop child exploitation in a structural manner, the organisation does not only help victims but also tackles the problem at its roots. The main strategies in this ToC are the 5 P's: Prevention, Provision, Promotion, Prosecution and Partnership & Participation.


To prevent child exploitation, TdH-NL invests in education, but also in raising awareness among children and adults. And because poverty is the main reason for child exploitation, TdH-NL also offers parents the opportunity to increase their incomes via savings and credit groups.


Children who are victim of exploitation, need protection. TdH-NL provides shelter, health care, counselling and education and help them build a new future. The organisation also offers help to family members and involves the community in protecting children.


It is important that victims can stand up for themselves and perpetrators are not allowed to escape justice. TdH-NL thus helps children to report cases to the police. They can also count on legal assistance and help during the criminal prosecution. The organisation also trains local police and justice. 


TdH-NL stands up for children's rights. The organisation campaigns to raise awareness of children's rights and conducts research to identify and call attention to trends and developments in child exploitation. Furthermore, TdH-NL follows and influences decision-making of local and national governments, businesses and international organisations (like the UN) and advocates for the implementation of these decisions. To prevent children from being exploited and to ensure victims of exploitation receive adequate help.


TdH-NL strengthens civil society in the promotion of children's rights as a precondition to ensure children are protected. The organisation invests in the organisational and institutional development of southern civil society organisations.

TdH-NL always works through local project partners. These partners are familiar with the situation on the ground and know the best ways of reaching out and helping the children concerned.

Terre des Hommes Netherlands in Kenya 

Terre des Hommes Netherlands supports Kenyan NGOs and networks in the execution of projects which aim to prevent child exploitation, provide assistance to exploited children and influence policy. Until the end of 2015, TdH-NL programming in Kenya will be implemented in i) the Urban Centres of Nairobi, Kisumu, Siaya and Machakos, ii) the Kenya Coastal Region and iii) Turkana. The 2016-2018 programme for which we are issuing the calls for proposals will be implemented in i)Kwale County ii) Turkana County and iii) Nationally for the child trafficking programme with special focus on some of the areas of origin that have been highlighted in the child trafficking call for proposals. 

Within the field of Child Protection, 2 Child Exploitation areas have been identified as programming priorities for our 2016-2018 programme:

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC): TdH-NL believes that the commercial sexual exploitation of children is a horrific violation of the rights of children and an act that also implies a crime on the part of those who use girls and boys and adolescents in the sex trade. TdH-NL promotes national and local level strategies that create an enabling environment that fosters actions against CSEC at the community and local level. In conjunction with our work on trafficking, particular focus is directed towards interventions at cross-border, regional and international levels.

Child Trafficking: TdH-NL works towards the elimination of child trafficking in and between our countries of operation. We aim to facilitate linkages at regional, national and County levels for institutions to ensure that regional and national anti-trafficking initiatives are effectively put into practice and that the various higher level initiatives are rooted in practical experience and action.

2. Call for Proposals: Ending Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Turkana, Kenya

Tackling commercial sexual exploitation of children is an important theme in TdH-NL's current strategic plan (2011­-2015). As part of its new strategic plan (2016­-2020), TdH-NL plans to increase its support to comprehensive projects addressing commercial sexual exploitation of children in Eastern Africa. Initial focus will be on three year projects (2016-2018). 

Invitation for applications & eligibility criteria

TdH-NL is inviting non-governmental organisations (NGOs or CSOs) with the required framework to submit a full proposal. 

This call is open to organisations to apply independently as well as in a consortium / in partnership (i.e. more than one applicant). If an application is made as a consortium, the applicant should as the consortium lead clearly state how the project will be managed and should indicate a clear role for each partner. The appointment of a consortium coordinator position is recommended, to be included in the management costs. 

Funding is only granted to national organisations (non INGOs) fully registered in the country of implementation. Any sub granting partners must also be fully registered. 

Outline of the requirements applicants need to meet in order to be considered for TdH-NL’s funding:

  • Applicant as well as (if applicable) co-applicants need to be fully registered in the country of implementation
  • Applicant as well as (if applicable) co-applicants need to demonstrate a successful track record in addressing commercial sexual exploitation of children
  • The proposal needs to show a coherent programmatic approach
  • The proposed project needs to be based on the Theory of Change with related outcomes

Proposals that do not meet any of the criteria in this call and that do not use the formats provided will automatically be disqualified.


Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is defined as "sexual abuse by an adult with remuneration in cash or in-kind to the child or a third person or persons". CSEC constitutes a form of violence against children and in Kenyan law is a criminal practice that violates children's rights. Offenders will often use coercion, deception and violence to control and manipulate the child for exploitation. CSEC includes: The use of girls and boys in sexual activities remunerated in cash or in kind; Child Sex Tourism (CST); The production, promotion and distribution of pornography involving children; The use of children in sex shows (public or private).
Whilst the Kenyan government has taken some positive and laudable steps to tackle CSEC through the 2013 -2017 National Plan of Action Against CSEC, a lot still remains to be done at different levels - family, community, national government and regional. The existence and continued growth of CSEC within Kenya has long been a cause for concern, in some areas more than others. CSEC is a major child protection issue and its link with economic growth and urbanisation cannot be ignored. Since decentralisation into county system started in 2013, a lot of towns in Kenya have grown exponentially; especially those hosting the county government head quarters.

Over the last two years, Turkana County has experienced growth and expansion including growth of towns that have in the past been relatively small. The discovery of oil has also played a significant role in spurring the economic growth and urbanisation especially in Lodwar, Lokichar and Kalokol towns (with the latter also being a fishing town). It is notable that Lokichar town has experienced growth in the past 2 years, with a number of entertainment premises coming up and a lot of young girls being seen hanging around these places. An assessment conducted by Terre des Hommes Netherlands in December 2014 in the three towns (mentioned above) revealed that many children are living on the streets particularly in Lodwar town. The problem of street children is increasing despite efforts by the county government to address the problem by withdrawing children from the streets. The government mobilised about 136 children and sent them to various schools across the county. However, some of the targeted children dropped out of school and returned to the streets. At the same time, there were new cases of children going to live in the streets. Stakeholders interviewed attributed this to weaknesses in the rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration approaches used. In Lokichar, sexual exploitation was the most notable problem. Children living in the nearby camp for Internally Displaced Persons (IDP), were most affected with 26 pregnancies of girls under the age of 17 years reported in the week that the TdH-NL mapping was being done. In Kalokol, many children were working in the fishing industry, with some mentioning aspects of transactional sex.

In general, children in Turkana are faced with challenges including neglect and lack of basic needs (food, shelter, clothing) and have limited access to education. In this context children are forced to fend for themselves and therefore end up in CSEC and a majority being very vulnerable to CSEC. Interviews with key informants and community members estimated that 75% of children in Kalokol, 70% in Lokichar and 65% in Lodwar are affected by the aforementioned problems. This is a clear indication of the high level of vulnerability among children and the need for a holistic programme aimed at protecting the rights of children in Turkana county. There are several factors that push or draw children into CSEC; for the Kenya programme (appreciating that some positive steps have already been taken by the government and other stakeholders), focus will be on the following causes:

1) High poverty levels at household/family level: Poverty has been cited as the main contributing factor pushing children into CSEC. Interventions addressing household poverty can go a long way in both preventing at risk children as well as child victims of CSEC from relapsing back into CSEC after rescue and withdrawal. 

2) Increased tolerance of negative cultural practices and negative community attitudes towards children (more so the girl child). The patriarchal nature of the African society places more value on boys and men therefore relegating girls and women making them more susceptible to abuse and exploitation. Although CSEC affects both boys and girls, there are more girls engaging in CSEC. Further, economic exclusion of girls and women weakens them leading to dependence (on their male relatives) and low self esteem, increasing the risk of CSEC. 

3) Lack of effective implementation of legal and policy frameworks towards elimination of CSEC: Although policies and frameworks addressing CSEC have been developed, gaps remain in the implementation. In Kenya, the National Plan of Action (NPA) Against Sexual Exploitation of Children for the Period 2013 -2017 was launched. This is a step in the right direction by the government. There has not been any deliberate move either to review implementation of the NPA and take stock of what has been done and what still needs to be done to adequately address CSEC in the country. Further, decentralisation and county system of government presents an opportunity for the county government to develop laws and policies specifically protecting children from CSEC. There is also a gap in the investigation and prosecution capacity of the law enforcement and judiciary, this gap is glaring and crucial if child victims of CSEC are to access justice and if prosecution is to achieve its purpose in also deterring potential perpetrators. 

4) Limited budgetary allocation by governments in the region towards elimination of CSEC: There has been limited resource allocation by government to ensure full implementation of the NPA addressing CSEC, especially in relation to supporting recovery and reintegration of child victims of CSEC. 

5) The private sector engagement: In Turkana this will be diverse ranging from transport, entertainment, fishing to the big oil exploration and extraction company. Although the oil company has been contributing towards education of children in the county, the secondary effects of their activities on children in relation to urbanisation requires active and consistent engagement to address vulnerability to CSEC especially in Lokichar.

Expected outcomes

This Call for Proposals aims to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation in Turkana County, Kenya. It specifically aims to address the following outcomes:

1. Children at risk of commercial sexual exploitation and children who are victims of commercial sexual exploitation claim their rights

2. Families and communities protect children from commercial sexual exploitation

3. Government protects children from commercial sexual exploitation by making and adequately implementing laws and policies 

4. Law enforcement agencies convict perpetrators of commercial sexual exploitation of children

5. Civil society organisations protect the rights and best interest of children (specifically children vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation)

6. Private sector contributes to the wellbeing of children vulnerable to or victims of commercial sexual exploitation

Intervention strategies - types of activities

Strategies to be considered by applicants should be in line with the 5 P's strategy of TdH-NL. A minimum of 2 of the 5 P's should be included in the proposed project. 
Examples of activities (important note: this list is for guidance purposes only and is not exhaustive):

1. Children vulnerable to sexual exploitation participate in awareness raising sessions

2. Sexually exploited children are withdrawn, rehabilitated and reintegrated with their families and communities

3. Sexually exploited children receive education and training services and participate in income generating activities

4. Community-based child protection structures are supported and actively take part in protecting children from sexual exploitation

5. Members of judiciary and police staff are trained on child protection and child-friendly interview techniques

Applicants are invited to indicate innovative approaches that feed into the expected outcomes (i.e. beyond the examples listed above).

Geographical focus

The following urban areas in Turkana County, Kenya are eligible for funding: Lodwar, Kalokol and Lokichar towns.

Duration and budget

The initial planned duration of a project should be 33 months, starting on 1 April 2016. 

Contracts will be entered into on yearly basis; the first one to cover 9 months (1 April - 31 December 2016). 

Depending on the project design, the budget ranges from EUR 300,000 to EUR 350,000 for the full duration of 33 months. The budget should be presented as per the required format (please refer to Annex 4 - TdH NL EA Project Budget Format), entailing the budget for the first 9 months as well as for the subsequent 2 years. The budget for the first 9 months should not exceed EUR 85,000 for 2016.

The proposed project budget should be at least 85% programme cost and not exceed 15% management cost (inclusive of a maximum of EUR 2,600 for ICT*).

* TdH-NL s reporting and accounting system is Internet based; with a view to this, all project partners are required to have or acquire sufficient equipment and Internet access.


  • Publication of the Call for Proposals: Wednesday 21 October 2015.
  • A Q & A session about this specific Call for Proposals will be organised by TdH-NL for which all interested parties are invited.
    The Q&A session will be held on Wednesday 4th November 2015 at the Lenana Conference Centre (Jacaranda Avenue, Lavington, Nairobi). Kindly send an email to to confirm attendance by Friday 30th October 2015. 
    (note: TdH-NL will only cater for the conference cost; all prospective applicants attending the Q&A session should cover their own travel and accommodation cost). 
  • Deadline of submission: Monday 16 November 2015 (12.00 EAT)
    Send your proposal to with subject heading: Ending CSEC in Turkana Project Proposal [+ name of (lead) applicant]. Include all required attachments / annexes.
  • Review and shortlisting will be done by TdH-NL on or before 15 December 2015. 
  • Shortlisted proposals will be subject to a more detailed review including clarifying questions, validation of information and capacity assessment of project applicants.
    Deadline for shortlisted applicants to answer questions raised: 15 January 2016.
  • Final selection will be done by TdH-NL on or before 7 February 2016, after which the selected projects will be submitted to TdH-NL's Head Office for final review and approval.
  • Partner contracts for the first 9 months of the project will be signed latest by 1 March 2016.
  • Projects will start on 1 April 2016. If so required, a mobilisation period of 2 months can be built into the project design, resulting in an effective project (activities) start date of 1 June 2016.

List of annexes

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